Any Putnam funds referenced in the above articles are not available for sale outside the United States.
The information provided relates to Putnam Investments and its affiliates, which include The Putnam Advisory Company, LLC and Putnam Investments Limited®.
Issued in the United Kingdom by Putnam Investments Limited®. Putnam Investments Limited is authorized and regulated by the Financial Services Authority (FSA). This material is directed exclusively at professional clients and eligible counterparties (as defined under the FSA Rules) who are knowledgeable and experienced in investment matters. Any investments to which this material relates are available only to or will be engaged in only with such persons, and any other persons (including retail clients) should not act or rely on this material.
Services provided by Putnam may not be available in all countries or to all investors. This content is not an offer to any investor who is not qualified under local law.
The views and opinions expressed are those of the fund manager above, are subject to change with market conditions, and are not meant as investment advice.
All funds and investment products involve risk, and you can lose money. See the prospectus for details. Any economic and performance information is historical and not indicative of future results.
If you are a U.S. retail investor: Investors should carefully consider the investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses of a fund before investing. For a prospectus, or a summary prospectus if available, containing this and other information for any Putnam fund or product, contact your financial representative, call Putnam at 1-888-4-PUTNAM (1-888-478-8626), or click on the prospectus section to view or download a prospectus. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing.
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In the United States, mutual funds are distributed by Putnam Retail Management.